# Introduction To Continuity

We start with a very intuitive introduction to continuity. Consider the two graphs given in the figure below:

Our purpose is to analyse the behaviour of these functions around the region *x* = 1.

The obvious visual difference between the two graphs around *x* = 1 is that whereas the first graph passes uninterrupted (without a break) through *x* = 1, the second function suffers a break at *x* = 1 (there is a jump).

This visual difference, put into mathematical language, gives us the concept and definition of continuity. Mathematically, we say that the function \(f\left( x \right) = {\left( {x - 1} \right)^2}\) is continuous at *x* = 1 while \(f\left( x \right) = \left[ x \right]\) is discontinuous at *x* = 1

For \(f\left( x \right) = {\left( {x - 1} \right)^2},\)

\(LHL \left( {{\rm{at}}\,x = 1} \right) = \mathop {\lim }\limits_{x \to {1^ - }} {\left( {x - 1} \right)^2} = 0\)

and

\(RHL \left( {{\rm{at}}\,x = 1} \right) = \mathop {\lim }\limits_{x \to {1^ + }} {\left( {x - 1} \right)^2} = 0\)

and

\(f(1) = 0\)

\(\Rightarrow LHL = RHL = f(1)\)

For \(f\left( x \right) = \left[ x \right],\)

\({\rm{LHL }}\left( {{\rm{at\, }}x = 1} \right) = \mathop {\lim }\limits_{x \to {1^ - }} \left[ x \right] = 0\)

and

\({\rm{RHL }}\left( {{\rm{at\, }}x = 1} \right) = \mathop {\lim }\limits_{x \to {1^ + }} \left[ x \right] = 1\)

and

\(f(1) = 1\)

\(\Rightarrow \,\,\,\,\,{\rm{ }}\,{\rm{LHL}} \ne {\rm{RHL}}\,{\rm{ = }}\,\,f\left( 1 \right)\)

From the discussion above, try to see that for a function to be continuous at *x *= *a*, all the three quantities, namely, LHL, RHL and *f *(*a*) should be equal. In any other scenario, the function becomes discontinuous.

Discontinuities therefore arise in the following cases:

**(a) ** **One or more than one of the three quantities, LHL, RHL and f(a) is not defined** . Lets consider some examples:

** (i) ** \(\begin{align}f\left( x \right) = \frac{1}{x}\end{align}\) around *x* = 0.

\({\rm{LHL}}\,{\rm{ = }}\, - \infty ,{\rm{ RHL}}\,{\rm{ = }}\, + \infty ,\,f\left( 0 \right)\) is not defined. Therefore, \(\begin{align}f\left( x \right) = \frac{1}{x}\end{align}\) is discontinuous at *x *= 0 which is obvious from the graph:

**(ii) ** \(\begin{align}f\left( x \right) = \left\{ {\frac{{{x^2} - 1}}{{x - 1}}{\rm{\,for\, }}x \ne 1} \right\}\end{align}\) around *x* = 1

\(LHL{\rm{ }} = {\rm{ }}RHL{\rm{ }} = {\rm{ }}2\) but *\(f(1)\)* is not defined. Therefore, this function’s graph has a hole at *x* = 1; it is discontinuous at *x* = 1:

**(b) ** **All the three quantities are defined, but any pair of them is unequal** (or all three are unequal). Lets go over some examples again:

**(i) ** * \(f(x){\rm{ }} = {\rm{ }}[x] \text{around any integer }I\)*

\(LHL{\rm{ }} = I-1,{\rm{ }}RHL{\rm{ }} = I,f\left( I \right){\rm{ \;}} = I\)

\(\Rightarrow {\rm{LHL}} \ne {\rm{RHL}}\,{\rm{ = }}\,f\left( I \right)\) so this function is discontinuous at all integers as

we already know.

**(ii) **\(f\left( x \right) = \left\{ x \right\}{\rm{ }}around{\rm{\; }}any{\rm{\; }}integer{\rm{\;}}I\)

\(LHL{\rm{ }} = 1,{\rm{ }}RHL{\rm{ }} = {\rm{ }}0{\rm{ }},f\left( I \right){\rm{ }} = {\rm{ }}0\)

\(\Rightarrow {\rm{LHL}} \ne {\rm{RHL}}\;{\rm{ = }}\;f\left( I \right)\) so this function is also discontinuous at all integers.

**(iii) ** \(f\left( x \right) = \left\{ \begin{gathered}1,\,\,\,x \notin \mathbb{Z} \hfill \\0,\,\,\,x \in \mathbb{Z} \hfill \\\end{gathered} \right\}\) around any integer *I*

From the figure, we notice that at any integer *\(I,{\rm{ }}LHL{\rm{ }} = {\rm{ }}1,{\rm{ }}RHL{\rm{ }} = 1,f\left( I \right){\rm{ }} = {\rm{ }}0\)*

\( \Rightarrow {\rm{LHL}}\;{\rm{ = }}\;{\rm{RHL}} \ne f\left( I \right)\) so that this function is again discontinuous.

**(iv) ** \(f\left( x \right) = \left\{ \begin{align}&\frac{{\left| x \right|}}{x},x \ne 0\\&0\,\,\,\,\,\,x = 0\end{align} \right\}{\rm{ around }}x = 0\)

At* x* = 0, we see that

\(LHL = -1,{\rm{ }}RHL{\rm{ }} = 1,f\left( 0 \right){\rm{ }} = {\rm{ }}0\)

\( \Rightarrow {\rm{LHL}} \ne {\rm{RHL}} \ne f\left( 0 \right)\) and this function is discontinuous.

To summarize, if we intend to evaluate the continuity of a function at *x* = *a*, which means that we want to determine whether *f *(*x*) will be continuous at *x* = *a* or not, we have to evaluate all the three quantities, LHL, RHL and *f *(*a*). If these three quantities are finite and equal, *f *(*x*) is continuous at *x* = *a*. In all other cases, it is discontinuous at *x* = *a*

\[\boxed{{\text{LHL}}\left( {{\text{at }}x = a} \right) = {\text{RHL}}\left( {{\text{at }}x = a} \right) = f\left( a \right):{\text{ for continuity at }}x = a}\]