Introduction to Shapes
Shapes in math is studied as a part of Geometry. Shapes are all around us. Here is a short video lesson on how shapes are taught the Cuemath way.
Shapes around us
Have you noticed the shape of a pizza? It is round in shape.
If we cut out a slice from the pizza, the slice is triangular in shape.
The handkerchief you carry is square in shape.
What are Shapes?
Shapes can be defined as the boundary or outline of an object. It is the surface we see. It does not depend on the size or colour. There are many types of shapes.
Everything we see has a shape. Even Earth has a shape. Have you seen the model of the Earth called the Globe? What is the shape of this object?
It looks like a sphere.
Now, look at this pencil box.
It looks like a cuboid.
Different Types of Shapes
Shapes in math can be defined in many ways based on their properties.
Shapes define the boundary of an object.
Shapes can be of the following types:
- open or closed
- two dimensional \((2\text{D})\) or three dimensional \((3\text{D})\)
- curved or straight
Closed shapes can be traced without any break. It starts and ends in the same place.
Open Shapes are not continuous. Let's look at these examples below:
- Closed Shapes
- Open Shapes
We learn about these open and closed shapes in Maths- Shapes Grade 3.
A shape can also be two dimensional (\(2\text{D}\)) or three dimensional (\(3\text{D}\)).
A square is a \(2\text{D}\) shape whereas a cube is a \(3\text{D}\) shape.
\(3\text{D}\) shapes have length, width and height. You can learn more about it here.
\(2\text{D}\) shapes, as the name suggests, have only two of these measurements.
The common \(2\text{D}\) and \(3\text{D}\) shapes are listed here in Table - 1 and Table - 2.
We learn about these \(2\text{D}\) and \(3\text{D}\) shapes in Maths- Shapes Grade 4.
List of Geometric Shapes
We know that shapes are made of straight lines or curved lines and they can be open or closed.
Lines are nothing but a collection of points. Many points put together form a line.
If it is straight, it is called a straight line and if it is curved, it is called a curved line.
Geometric shapes are closed shapes which are created by joining lines together.
Look at this shape below; It is made of four straight lines.
Closed shapes made of four straight lines are called quadrilateral shapes.
Can you think of another quadrilateral shape?
Next, look at this shape here:
It has no straight line, or corner, or side to it. It is a closed shape made of curved lines.
This shape is called an ellipse.
Can you think of another shape with no edges?
This is a three-dimensional shape. It has length, breadth and height.
This shape is called a cube. There are several other \(3\text{D}\) shapes.
Few are listed here in the table:
Table - 1
\(3\text{D}\) Shapes | Images |
Cuboid | |
Cone | |
Pyramid | |
Cylinder |
Look around you and identify more \(3\text{D}\) shapes.
Two-Dimensional Geometric Shapes
Have you seen a sheet of paper?
It consists of length and breadth.
A two-dimensional shape does not have any depth.
The common \(2\text{D}\) shapes we see are listed below:
Table - 2
\(2\text{D}\) Shapes | Number of sides | Image |
Triangle | \(3\) | |
Square | \(4\) | |
Rhombus | \(4\) | |
Kite | \(4\) | |
Rectangle | \(4\) | |
Trapezium | \(4\) | |
Pentagon | \(5\) | |
Hexagon | \(6\) | |
Heptagon | \(7\) | |
Octagon | \(8\) | |
Decagon | \(10\) | |
Dodecagon | \(12\) | |
Hexadecagon | \(16\) | |
Circle | \(0\) |
Can you draw a few more \(2\text{D}\) shapes?
- Quadrilateral shapes are four-sided closed figures made with straight lines.
- Polygons are closed shapes made of straight lines. They are named after the number of sides they have.
Solved Examples
Example 1 |
Is the given figure a two-dimensional or a three-dimensional shape? How many sides does it have?
Solution:
The football looks like a sphere in shape and has \(0\) sides
The figure is a three-dimensional shape |
Example 2 |
What \(3\text{D}\) shape does the ice-cream resemble?
Solution:
It looks like a cone |
Example 3 |
How many sides are there in the given shape ? Is it a closed or open shape?
Solution:
Count the number of straight lines in the star. There are \(10\) straight lines.
We can trace the outline of this star without any break. Hence, it is a closed shape.
It is a closed shape with \(10\) sides |
Example 4 |
What shape is the given figure? How many sides does it have?
Solution:
The given shape has \(4\) sides. It is a Quadrilateral
It is a Quadrilateral with \(4\) sides |
Practice Questions
- Is the given shape a Quadrilateral?
- What is the name of the closed shape which has 100 sides?
Maths Olympiad Sample Papers
IMO (International Maths Olympiad) is a competitive exam in Mathematics conducted annually for school students. It encourages children to develop their math solving skills from a competition perspective.
You can download the FREE grade-wise sample papers from below:
- IMO Sample Paper Class 1
- IMO Sample Paper Class 2
- IMO Sample Paper Class 3
- IMO Sample Paper Class 4
- IMO Sample Paper Class 5
- IMO Sample Paper Class 6
- IMO Sample Paper Class 7
- IMO Sample Paper Class 8
- IMO Sample Paper Class 9
- IMO Sample Paper Class 10
To know more about the Maths Olympiad you can click here
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
1. What are the types of shapes?
There are many different types of shapes. They are grouped together based on their properties.
A shape can be:
- closed or open
- two dimensional or three dimensional
- regular or irregular
The properties of shapes define what type they are.
2. What are the 16 basic shapes?
The 16 basic shapes are : Triangle, Square, Rectangle, Kite, Rhombus, Trapezium, Pentagon, Hexagon, Nanogen, Decagon, Dodecagon, Hexadecogon, Star, Oval, Ellipse and Circle.
3. What are the 4 basic shapes?
There are many types of shapes but we come across 4 basic shapes very often.
The 4 basic shapes are: circle, square, triangle, and rectangle.
We will learn more about these in Shapes Grade 3 and Shapes Grade 4.
4. What are the 5 basic shapes?
The five basic shapes which we come across often are: circle, rectangle, square, triangle, and oval.