Math & Beyond

Analogy and Classification

7th Sep '20159 views6 mins read

07 September 2020

Reading time: 4 minutes


Introduction

Analogy is one useful method for interpreting a relationship between uncommon expressions.

In this article we will see how to solve the analogies and classification related questions and why it is important to know about it.


What is meant by Analogy?

 A cognitive process where information or meaning from a particular subject is transferred to another, this process is called Analogy. In short, the term analogy can relate to the relationship between the ‘source’ and the ‘target’ themselves.

An analogy is a comparison between two objects or systems of objects, that emphasize respects in which they are thought to be alike.


What is Classification Analogy?

Classification analogy is one of the most common types of analogies, where there is comparing terms according to categories.

The act of grouping various objects on the basis of their common characteristics is known as classification.

birds

In other words, a classification analogy is where there is comparison between terms as per which group they belong.
Let’s have a look at how one analyses, finds and solves Classification analogies.


Description

Analogy

  •  Analogy is an inference or an argument from one circumstance to another circumstance, as opposed to deduction, induction, and abduction, in which at least one of the properties, or the conclusion, is general rather than specifically in nature.
  •  In analogy we do comparison of things, and based on those objects, we analyze whether they are alike or have any similarities.
  • Analogies actually embrace the comparison or conclude on basis of reasoning itself.
  • Analogy is noteworthy in fixing a problem, finding solutions, decisiveness, debate, percepts, conception, memorizing, imagination and creativity, invention, predicting and feeling, explaining and communicating.

 Classification Analogy

  • So this way in classification analogies, children can demonstrate the relationship between two different pairs of objects or images, by emphasizing the classification of one of the terms as a group of another.
  • Classification is done based on common properties, angle, shape, size, quantity, type, nature, colours, traits and so on.
  • The rest of the elements which are common form a group and the element that has been taken out as it is different from the others in that group, as the common qualities are observed by the rest of the elements.
  • Classification analogies are sometimes ranked in type, compare different levels of a ranking and also focus on relationships of insertion.
  • For instance: a Dog is a type of pet animal, just as a Lion is a type of wild animal -
    Dog:Pet: :Lion:Wild.
  • Mostly, there are questions in which one of the terms is missing and one has to find the missing term to solve a classification analogy.
  • Don’t worry as solving a classification analogy is easy, if you approach it in a logical way.

apple

 Below are a few ways to solve analogy based questions. Followed with few examples of classification analogies in which either the object or the group are missed.


Tricks or ways to solve Analogies and Classification Analogies

  • A pair of related terms/figures is provided and a similar relationship is to be established between the two other terms/figures or another pair to identify the missing term/figure.
  • Try to diagnose the relationship between the first pair of terms. (Dog: Pet)
  • The analogy problems can be read as sentences, even if it is actually written differently. (Dog ‘is to’ Pet just like Lion ‘is to’ Wild.)
  • Change the analogies into sentences.
  • Follow a systematic method especially while solving a hard problem.
  • First go through answer options, before choosing a solution and not just rely on the one match that looks might be a strong match.
  • Delete mentally any pairs in the answers that don’t have a similar type of relationship.
  • Go through the context, keep in mind tough terms so when you are observing any analogy based questions you can recollect it and apply the logic answers.
  • If the relationship of a term is unfamiliar, then try to remember the text in which you have come across the word.
  • You may replace it with alternative explanations of terms.
  • When solving analogies try to apply the same logic by taking another look at the relationship possibilities as mentioned above.
  • If this doesn't work, discard the unlikely answers and apply logical guesses.

While solving Classification Analogies:

  • There is a set of terms / figures in which all, except one follows similar properties.
  • We are required to identify the property followed in the set and find the odd one out.
  • Similar to any other analogy, follow a logical process the main aspect in being able to solve a classification analogy.
  • As mentioned earlier, have a clear view of the completed part of classification analogy.  
  • Try to understand the relationship between those groups.
  • Follow similar steps mentioned above and check whether you can frame a sentence of that relationship.
  • It is better to describe in depth if possible the relation between two groups, but keeping in mind that the other side of the analogy might have different type relationships.
  • Now determine what is missing part that is not there in the analogy to identify the odd one.  
  • If something is missing, it could be a category (group), or member.
  • Try to match with the completed part of the analogy, i.e. if the term is numerical - 4:20: :8:40, the 4 and 8 sections will be the same (a member or a group) and the 20 and 40 sections will be the same.

Use these steps and try solving a few examples given below.


Examples for Analogies and Classification from Cuemath

Identify the relationship and find the missing figure.

Example 1: Identify the relation between the given pair on either side of : : and find the missing figure.

4:2 missing figure

 

(D) 8

Answer: Reason as half of digit 4 is 2, when digit 8 is divided into half we get digit 4. 

Example 2: Identify the relation between the given pair on either side of : : and find the missing figure.

Book:pen

ball:cup 
 

(A) Ball

Answer: A pen is used to write on the book, the ball is used while playing bat.

Identify the property followed in the set and find the odd one out.

Example 1: Find the odd one out.

odd one out

(D) 7

Answer: As all other numbers 2, 4, 6 are even numbers and divisible by 2 whereas 7 is odd number.
 

Example 2: Find the odd one out.

sweater:shirt
 

(D) Socks

Answer: Reason as all other options we wear it on our upper body whereas we put socks on feet.

Exercise Questions 

Question 1: Choose the fish that does not belong to the group.

fish

(D) 81

 

Question 2: There is a certain relationship between the pair of figures on either side of :: . Identify the relation and find the missing figure.

ball:bat

 

ball

(B)

 

Question 3: Find the odd one out.

shapes

 

(D) 

 

Question 4: Figure (i) and (ii) are related to each other in some manner. Establish a similar relationship between figures (iii) and (iv) by selecting a suitable figure from the options.

triangles

pentagon

 

(A)

 

Question 5: There is a certain relationship between the pair of figures on either side of :: . Identify the relationship and find the missing figure.

squares

squares and circles

 

(D)

 

Question 6: Which of the following figures is the same as the given figure?

PQR

pqr options

(D)

 

Question 7: The first two figures are related. Choose an option that establishes the same rotation between the third and fourth figures.

circles

squares

 

(D) 

 

Question 8: Find the odd one out.

symmetry

 

(D) 

 


Summary:  

After understanding Analogy and classification well, students will be able to predict individual differences between pairs of elements.

After observing the options carefully will choose the odd one out. Children will also be able to analyze figures and patterns while solving any problem.

Analogy helps children develop logical thinking. As we know practice makes one perfect, it is through practice children can be better at analogies.

At Cuemath, we use these types of analogies based questions which are designed by professionals.

Our main aim is to cue our students, such that they understand and solve any analogies logically and independently in the future.

 

(Image Source: freepik, shutterstock, pinterest)


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