Measurement
Measurement refers to the comparison of an unknown quantity with a known quantity. The result of the measurement is a numeric value with certain units. We can measure the length, mass, capacity (volume), and temperature of any given object. Let us learn more about it in this article.
1.  What is Measurement? 
2.  Measurement Units 
3.  Measurement Conversion 
4.  Measurement of Length 
5.  Measurement of Mass 
6.  Time Measurement 
7.  FAQs on Measurement 
What is Measurement?
Measurement is defined as the system or act of measuring. It can be understood as a process of defining physical items using numbers. For example, "this rod is bigger than that rod". This statement is serving a very limited purpose of comparison where we do not know anything about the individual attributes of the given rods. But if we say that the length of the first rod is 20 inches, and the length of the second rod is 15 inches, therefore 1st rod is bigger than the second one by 5 inches. This statement is making more sense mathematically and offers us a reason for our deduction.
In mathematics, measurement is often considered as a separate branch as it includes a wide range of knowledge including conversion, units, measuring length, mass, time, etc. It is associated with other branches as well like geometry, trigonometry, algebra, etc. We use the concept of measurement with the shapes (area, volume, etc), measuring heights and distances using trigonometric ratios is also a type of measurement (trigonometry), and measurement can also be done using unknown quantities or variables to establish a general relationship (algebra). Now, before learning about measurement units, let us learn the abbreviations that are generally used to represent units of measurement.
Measurement Unit  Abbreviated as 

Centimeters Meters Kilometers Millimeters Miles Yards Feet/Foot Inches 
Cm m km mm mi yd ft in 
Milligrams Grams Kilograms Centigrams Pounds Ounces Tonnes Ton 
mg g kg cg lbs oz t (used in the Metric system) t (used in the Imperial system) 
liters milliliters kiloliters fluid ounce cup pint quart Gallon 
l ml kl fl oz c pt qt gal 
Kelvin Fahrenheit Celsius 
K °F °C 
You can go ahead and explore all important topics in measurement by selecting the topics from this list below:
Reading a Calendar  Metric Conversion Chart 
Length Conversion  Unit Conversion 
Temperature Converter  Reading and Representing Time 
Measurement Units
There are various units of measurement depending on its type. For example, the measurement units of length are meters, centimeters, inches, feet, etc. For mass, we have kilograms, grams, pounds, tons, etc. There is a way to classify various measurement units into two types: Metric System and the U.S Standard System (Imperial System of Measurement). In each of these systems, we use different units for each type of measurement. When millimeters, centimeters, meters, and kilometers are measurement units of length under the metric system, inches, feet, yards, and miles are the units under the US standard system. Look at the chart below showing the categorization of different measurement units in these two systems of measurement.
Measurement Conversion
When we have to compare the values of the given quantities or perform arithmetic operations on them, we need to have a common unit of measurement. For example, we can add 12 meters to 10 meters to get 22 meters of length, but we cannot add 12 meters to 10 inches. In those cases, we need to know and use 'measurement conversion' to convert the given units into a common unit. Whether it is length, mass, temperature, or time, we have some formulas that can be used to get the values in a common unit. Given below is a measurement chart that can be used for such conversion.
By using these values, we can apply the unitary method to convert a unit to another unit of measurement. For example, if 1 inch = 2.54 centimeters, then 5 inches can be calculated by multiplying 5 by 2.54 which will give us 12.7 centimeters. In addition to the conversion within the same system of measurement, we can also convert a unit from the metric system to the standard system, and viceversa as shown in the above example.
Measurement of Length
To measure length, we use measurement tapes and a ruler. We have already discussed units and conversion for the measurement of length. There are two ways to measure length which are informal ways and formal ways. Informal ways include measuring length using hand span, thread, etc where there is no definite relation between the quantities in numbers. The formal ways include measurement units like meters, inches, etc which give meaning and structure to our findings. Below given are some of the units and their conversions related to the length measurement.
Metric System 
1 cm = 10 mm 1 m = 100 cm 1 m = 1000 mm 1 km = 1000 m 

US Standard System 
1 feet = 12 inches 1 yard = 3 feet 1 yard = 36 inches 1 mile = 1760 yards 1 mile = 5280 feet 
Metric to US Standard System 
1 cm = 0.3937 inches 1 m = 39.37 inches 1 m = 3.28 feet 1 km = 3280.84 feet 1 km = 0.62 miles 1 km = 1093.61 yards 
US Standard to Metric System 
1 inch = 2.54 cm 1 foot = 30.48 cm 1 yard = 91.44 cm 1 foot = 0.3048 m 1 mile = 1.6 km 1 mile = 1609.34 m 1 yard = 0.9144 m 
Measurement of Mass
Mass is the amount of matter present in an object. To measure mass, we use various units like grams, kilograms, milligrams, pounds, ounces, tons, etc. It is measured using a scale or a weighing balance. To convert mass from one unit to another, we can use the following conversions:
Metric System 
1 grams = 1000 milligrams 1 kilogram = 1000 grams 1 tonne = 1000 kilograms 1 megagram = 1000 kilograms 

US Standard System 
1 ounce = 16 drams 1 pound = 16 ounces 1 ton = 2000 pounds 
Metric to US Standard System 
1 gram = 0.035274 ounces 1 kilogram = 35.27396 ounces 1 kilogram = 2.20462 pounds 1 tonne = 1.10231 ton 
US Standard to Metric System 
1 ounce = 28.34952 grams 1 pound = 0.45359 kilograms 1 pound = 453.59237 grams 1 ton = 0.90718 tonnes 
Time Measurement
Measurement of time can be done using various units like seconds, minutes, hours, weeks, days, fortnight, months, and years. To write time, we use A.M and P.M, but to measure it these units are used. Below is the measurement chart containing the units of measuring time along with their conversions.
In 1 year, there are 365 days or 52 weeks and 1 day, but in a leap year, there are 366 days or 52 weeks and 2 days. A leap year can be identified by dividing it by 4. If it is exactly divisible by 4, then it is a leap year, otherwise, it is not. For example, 2020 was a leap year as 2020 is divisible by 4. For century years like 2000, 2100, 3000, etc, we check their divisibility by 400 to find out whether they are leap years or not.
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Measurement Examples

Example 1: Find the length of a ribbon of 20 inches in centimeters.
Solution: As per the formula of measurement conversion, we know that 1 inch = 2.54 cm. Given, the length of the ribbon is 20 inches. This implies, 20 inches = 20 × 2.54 cm = 50.8 cm. Therefore, the length of the ribbon in centimeters is 50.8 cm.

Example 2: Noah's weight is 48000 grams. What is his weight in kilograms?
Solution: Given, Noah's weight = 48000 grams. Kilograms and grams are both measurement units, and to convert grams to kilograms we divide the value by 1000.
1 g = 1/1000 kg
48000 g = 48000/1000 kg
= 48 kg
Therefore, Noah's weight in kilograms is 48 kg.

Example 3: Kate rides her bicycle 1.5 miles per day. How many kilometers does she ride in a week?
Solution: In a mile, there are 1.6 kilometers. To do the measurement conversion from miles to kilometers, let us multiply 1.5 miles by 1.6.
1 mile = 1.6 km
1.5 miles = 1.5 × 1.6 km
= 2.4 km
Now, multiply 2.4 km by 7, as there are 7 days in a week.
⇒ 2.4 × 7 km
= 16.8 km
Therefore, Kate rides 16.8 kilometers in a week.
FAQs on Measurement
What is Measurement in Math?
Measurement in math is a collective branch that consists of units of measurement, rules, formulas to determine the measurement parameters such as area, volume, length, perimeter, surface area, time, etc.
What are the 7 Basic Units of Measurement?
The seven SI base units are:
 Length  meter (m)
 Time  second (s)
 Amount of substance  mole (mole)
 Electric current  ampere (A)
 Temperature  kelvin (K)
 Luminous intensity  candela (cd)
 Mass  kilogram (kg)
What is the Formula for Surface Area Measurement?
The surface area of a solid shape is the combined area of all its faces. It is measured in square units. Thus,
 Surface Area of Cuboid = 2(lh + lb + bh)
 Surface Area of Cube = 6s
 Surface Area of Cone = π r(r + s)
 Surface Area of Cylinder = 2πr (r+h)
 Surface Area of Sphere = 4πr^{2}
What is Formula for Area Measurement?
The most basic formula to find the area of a 2D shape is the formula for the area of a rectangle. That is, the area of the rectangle is the length multiplied by the width. Also, as a special case, where l = w, that is the case of a square, then the formula for the area (A) of a square with side length s is A = s^{2} (square). Other formulas for the measurement of area are:
 Area of triangle = 1/2 × b × h
 Area of circle = πr^{2}
 Area of parallelogram = base × height
 Area of trapezoid = 1/2 × (sum of parallel sides) × height
What System of Measurement is used in the US?
The United States has introduced its own customary unit system which is USCS (United States Customary System) which is extensively used in various fields. The units they use for measurement include feet, inches, pounds, ounces, tons, etc.
Why is Measurement Important?
It is important to measure certain things to understand the world around us, such as distance, time, temperature, etc. Measurement is a concept that is used in almost all fields, a few of them are given below.
 Measurement of agricultural fields, floor areas required for purchase/selling transactions.
 Measurement of volumes required for packaging milk, liquids, solid edible food items.
 Measurements of surface areas required for estimation of painting houses, buildings, etc.
What is the Main System of Measurement?
The main system of measurement is the international system of units (SI) units, and all other systems of measurement are linked to it. The British Imperial system and the US customary system are linked to the SI units of measurement with the units of conversion and can be conveniently used to convert from one unit to another.
What are the Three Types of Measurement?
The three standard types of measurement systems are listed below:
 The International System of Units (SI) units
 The British Imperial System
 The US Customary System
Why is it Important to do the Measurement of Time?
Time is a very important measurement that helps us fix the duration or length of any event, specify when an event will start and end, and also compare the duration of any two events.
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