Graphical Representation of Data
Graphical representation of data is an attractive method of showcasing numerical data that help in analyzing and representing quantitative data visually. A graph is a kind of a chart where data are plotted as variables across the coordinate. It became easy to analyze the extent of change of one variable based on the change of other variables. Graphical representation of data is done through different mediums such as lines, plots, diagrams, etc. Let us learn more about this interesting concept of graphical representation of data, the different types, and solve a few examples.
Definition of Graphical Representation of Data
A graphical representation is a visual representation of data statisticsbased results using graphs, plots, and charts. This kind of representation is more effective in understanding and comparing data than seen in a tabular form. Graphical representation helps to qualify, sort, and present data in a method that is simple to understand for a larger audience. Graphs enable in studying the cause and effect relationship between two variables through both time series and frequency distribution. The data that is obtained from different surveying is infused into a graphical representation by the use of some symbols, such as lines on a line graph, bars on a bar chart, or slices of a pie chart. This visual representation helps in clarity, comparison, and understanding of numerical data.
Representation of Data
The word data is from the Latin word Datum, which means something given. The numerical figures collected through a survey are called data and can be represented in two forms  tabular form and visual form through graphs. Once the data is collected through constant observations, it is arranged, summarized, and classified to finally represented in the form of a graph. There are two kinds of data  quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative data is more structured, continuous, and discrete with statistical data whereas qualitative is unstructured where the data cannot be analyzed.
Principles of Graphical Representation of Data
The principles of graphical representation are algebraic. In a graph, there are two lines known as Axis or Coordinate axis. These are the Xaxis and Yaxis. The horizontal axis is the Xaxis and the vertical axis is the Yaxis. They are perpendicular to each other and intersect at O or point of Origin. On the right side of the Origin, the Xaxis has a positive value and on the left side, it has a negative value. In the same way, the upper side of the Origin Yaxis has a positive value where the down one is with a negative value. When axis and yaxis intersect each other at the origin it divides the plane into four parts which are called Quadrant I, Quadrant II, Quadrant III, Quadrant IV. This form of representation is seen in a frequency distribution that is represented in four methods, namely Histogram, Smoothed frequency graph, Pie diagram or Pie chart, Cumulative or ogive frequency graph, and Frequency Polygon.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Graphical Representation of Data
Listed below are some advantages and disadvantages of using a graphical representation of data:
 It improves the way of analyzing and learning as the graphical representation makes the data easy to understand.
 It can be used in almost all fields from mathematics to physics to psychology and so on.
 It is easy to understand for its visual impacts.
 It shows the whole and huge data in an instance.
 It is mainly used in statistics to determine the mean, median, and mode for different data
The main disadvantage of graphical representation of data is that it takes a lot of effort as well as resources to find the most appropriate data and then represent it graphically.
Rules of Graphical Representation of Data
While presenting data graphically, there are certain rules that need to be followed. They are listed below:
 Suitable Title: The title of the graph should be appropriate that indicate the subject of the presentation.
 Measurement Unit: The measurement unit in the graph should be mentioned.
 Proper Scale: A proper scale needs to be chosen to represent the data accurately.
 Index: For better understanding, index the appropriate colors, shades, lines, designs in the graphs.
 Data Sources: Data should be included wherever it is necessary at the bottom of the graph.
 Simple: The construction of a graph should be easily understood.
 Neat: The graph should be visually neat in terms of size and font to read the data accurately.
Uses of Graphical Representation of Data
The main use of a graphical representation of data is understanding and identifying the trends and patterns of the data. It helps in analyzing large quantities, comparing two or more data, making predictions, and building a firm decision. The visual display of data also helps in avoiding confusion and overlapping of any information. Graphs like line graphs and bar graphs, display two or more data clearly for easy comparison. This is important in communicating our findings to others and our understanding and analysis of the data.
Types of Graphical Representation of Data
Data is represented in different types of graphs such as plots, pies, diagrams, etc. They are as follows,
Data Representation  Description 

Bar Graph A group of data represented with rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values is a bar graph. The bars can either be vertically or horizontally plotted. 

Pie Chart The pie chart is a type of graph in which a circle is divided into Sectors where each sector represents a proportion of the whole. Two main formulas used in pie charts are:


Line graph The line graph represents the data in a form of series that is connected with a straight line. These series are called markers. 

Pictograph Data shown in the form of pictures is a pictograph. Pictorial symbols for words, objects, or phrases can be represented with different numbers. 

Histogram The histogram is a type of graph where the diagram consists of rectangles, the area is proportional to the frequency of a variable and the width is equal to the class interval. Here is an example of a histogram. 

Frequency Distribution The frequency distribution table in statistics showcases the data in ascending order along with their corresponding frequencies. The frequency of the data is often represented by f. 

Stem and Leaf Plot The stem and leaf plot is a way to represent quantitative data according to frequency ranges or frequency distribution. It is a graph that shows numerical data arranged in order. Each data value is broken into a stem and a leaf. 

Scatter Plot Scatter diagram or scatter plot is a way of graphical representation by using Cartesian coordinates of two variables. The plot shows the relationship between two variables. 
Related Topics
Listed below are a few interesting topics that are related to the graphical representation of data, take a look.
Examples on Graphical Representation of Data

Example 1: A pie chart is divided into 3 parts with the angles measuring as 2x, 8x, and 10x respectively. Find the value of x in degrees.
Solution:
We know, the sum of all angles in a pie chart would give 360º as result.
⇒ 2x + 8x + 10x = 360º
⇒ 20 x = 360º
⇒ x = 360º/20
⇒ x = 18º
Therefore, the value of x is 18º. 
Example 2: Ben is trying to read the plot given below. His teacher has given him stem and leaf plot worksheets. Can you help him answer the questions?
i) What is the mode of the plot?
ii) What is the mean of the plot?
iii) Find the range.Stem Leaf 1 2 4 2 1 5 8 3 2 4 6 5 0 3 4 4 6 2 5 7 8 3 8 9 9 1 Solution: i) Mode is the number that appears often in the data. Leaf 4 occurs twice on the plot against stem 5.
Hence, mode = 54
ii) The sum of all data values is 12 + 14 + 21 + 25 + 28 + 32 + 34 + 36 + 50 + 53 + 54 + 54 + 62 + 65 + 67 + 83 + 88 + 89 + 91 = 958
To find the mean, we have to divide the sum by the total number of values.
Mean = Sum of all data values ÷ 19 = 958 ÷ 19 = 50.42
iii) Range = the highest value  the lowest value = 91  12 = 79
FAQs on Graphical Representation of Data
What is Graphical Representation?
Graphical representation is a form of visually displaying data through various methods like graphs, diagrams, charts, and plots. It helps in sorting, visualizing, and presenting data in a clear manner through different types of graphs. Statistics mainly use graphical representation to show data.
What are the Different Types of Graphical Representation?
The different types of graphical representation of data are:
 Bar graph
 Line graph
 Histogram
 Pie chart
 Stem and leaf plot
 Pictograph
 Scatter diagrams
 Frequency Distribution
Is the Graphical Representation of Numerical Data?
Yes, these graphical representations are numerical data that has been accumulated through various surveys and observations. The method of presenting these numerical data is called a chart. There are different kinds of charts such as a pie chart, bar graph, line graph, etc, that help in clearly showcasing the data.
What is the Use of Graphical Representation of Data?
Graphical representation of data is useful in clarifying, interpreting, and analyzing data plotting points and drawing line segments, surfaces, and other geometric forms or symbols.
What are the Ways to Represent Data?
Tables, charts, and graphs are all ways of representing data, and they can be used for two broad purposes. The first is to support the collection, organization, and analysis of data as part of the process of a scientific study.
What is the Objective of Graphical Representation of Data?
The main objective of representing data graphically is to display information visually that helps in understanding the information efficiently, clearly, and accurately. This is important to communicate the findings as well as analyze the data.
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