# How to find degrees of freedom for the chi-square test of independence

The Chi-square test of independence is a hypothesis testing procedure in order to determine if the nominal variables have the chance to be related or not.

## Answer: The formula df = ( c - 1 ) ( r - 1 ) is used to find the degree of freedom.

Let us see how we use the formula to find the degree of freedom.

**Explanation:**

The degree of freedom of the chi-square test is calculated by the formula df = ( c - 1 ) ( r - 1 ), where c represents the column number of cell and r represents the row number of the cell. The degree of freedom of the chi-square test of independence is defined as the no. of cells in the tabular data that can change before we get the calculations of the other cells. In the chi-square tabular data, the cells demystify the observed frequency for each of the combinations of categorical variables.