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Sin Cos Tan
In trigonometry, sin, cos, and tan are the basic trigonometric ratios used to study the relationship between the angles and sides of a triangle (especially of a rightangled triangle). Pythagoras worked on the relationship between the sides of a right triangle through the Pythagorean theorem while Hipparcus worked on establishing the relationship between the sides and angles of a right triangle using the concepts of trigonometry. Sin, cos, and tan formulas in trigonometry are used to find the missing sides or angles of a rightangled triangle.
Let's understand the sin, cos, and tan in trigonometry using formulas and examples.
What is Sin Cos Tan in Trigonometry?
Sin, cos, and tan are the three primary trigonometric ratios, namely, sine, cosine, and tangent respectively, where each of which gives the ratio of two sides of a rightangled triangle. We know that the longest side of a rightangled triangle is known as the "hypotenuse" and the other two sides are known as the "legs." That means, in trigonometry, the longest side of a rightangled triangle is still known as the "hypotenuse" but the other two legs are named to be:
 opposite side and
 adjacent side
We decide the "opposite" and "adjacent" sides based upon the angle which we are talking about.
 The "opposite side" or the perpendicular is the side that is just "opposite" to the angle.
 The "adjacent side" or the base is the side(other than the hypotenuse) that "touches" the angle.
Sin Cos Tan Values
Sin, Cos, and Tan values in trigonometry refer to the values of the respective trigonometric function for the given angle. We can find the sin, cos and tan values for a given right triangle by finding the required ratio of the sides. Let us understand the formulas to find these ratios in detail in the following sections.
Sin Cos Tan Formulas
Sin, cos, and tan functions in trigonometry are defined in terms of two of the three sides (opposite, adjacent, and hypotenuse) of a rightangled triangle. Here are the formulas of sin, cos, and tan.
sin θ = Opposite/Hypotenuse
cos θ = Adjacent/Hypotenuse
tan θ = Opposite/Adjacent
Apart from these three trigonometric ratios, we have another three ratios called csc, sec, and cot which are the reciprocals of sin, cos, and tan respectively. Let us understand these sin, cos, and tan formulas using the example given below.
Example: Find the sin, cos, and tan of the triangle for the given angle θ.
Solution:
In the triangle, the longest side (or) the side opposite to the right angle is the hypotenuse. The side opposite to θ is the opposite side or perpendicular. The side adjacent to θ is the adjacent side or base.
Now we find sin θ, cos θ, and tan θ using the above formulas:
sin θ = Opposite/Hypotenuse = 3/5
cos θ = Adjancent/Hypotenuse = 4/5
tan θ = Opposite/Adjacent = 3/4
Trick to remember sin cos tan formulas in trigonometry: Here is a trick to remember the formulas of sin, cos, and tan. We can use the acronym "SOHCAHTOA" as shown below,
Sin Cos Tan Table
The trigonometric ratios, sin, cos, and tan do not exactly depend upon the side lengths of the triangle but rather they depend upon the angle because ultimately, we are taking the ratio of the sides. Sin, cos, and tan table is used to find the value of these trigonometric functions for the standard angles. During calculations involving sine, cosine, or tangent ratios, we can directly refer to the trig chart given in the following section to make the deductions easier.
Sin Cos Tan Chart
Sin cos tan chart/table is a chart with the trigonometric values of sine, cosine, and tangent functions for some standard angles 0^{o}, 30^{o}, 45^{o}, 60^{o}, and 90^{o}. We can refer to the trig table given below to directly pick values of sin, cos, and tan values for standard angles.
Tips to Remember Sin Cos Tan Table
The tips that you need to memorize from this chart are:
 The angles 0^{o}, 30^{o}, 45^{o}, 60^{o}, and 90^{o } in order.
 The first row (of sin) can be remembered like this: 0/2, √1/2, √2/2, √3/2.
 That's all you need to remember because:
The row of cos is as same as the row of sin just in the reverse order.  Each value in the row of tan is obtained by dividing the corresponding values of sin by cos because tan = sin/cos.
You can see how is tan = sin/cos here:
sin θ/cos θ = (Opposite/Hypotenuse) ÷ (Adjacent/Hypotenuse) = (Opposite/Hypotenuse) × (Hypotenuse/Adjacent) = Opposite/Adjacent = tan θ
Sin Cos Tan on Unit Circle
The values of sin, cos, and tan can be calculated for any given angle using the unit circle. Unit circle in a coordinate plane is a circle of unit radius of 1, frequently centered at the origin (0, 0) in the Cartesian coordinate system in the Euclidean plane, especially in trigonometry. For any point on unit circle, given with the coordinates(x, y), the sin, cos and tan ratios can be given as,
 sin θ = y/1
 cos θ = x/1
 tan θ = y/x
where θ is the angle the line joining the point and origin forms with the positive xaxis.
Application of Sin Cos Tan in Real Life
Trigonometry ratios sin, cos, tan find application in finding heights and distances in our daily lives. We use sin, cos, and tan to solve many reallife problems. Here is an example to understand the applications of sin, cos and tan.
Example: A ladder leans against a brick wall making an angle of 50^{o} with the horizontal. If the ladder is at a distance of 10 ft from the wall, then up to what height of the wall the ladder reaches?
Solution:
Let us assume that the ladder reaches till x ft of the wall.
Using the given information:
Here, we know the adjacent side (which is 10 ft) and we have to find the opposite side (which is x ft). So we use the relation between the opposite and the adjacent sides which is tan.
tan 50^{o} = x/10
x = 10 tan 50^{o}
x ≈ 11.9 ft
Here, tan 50^{o} is calculated using the calculator and the final answer is rounded up to 1 decimal. Therefore, the ladder reaches up to 11.9 ft of the wall.
Topics Related to Sin Cos Tan:
Examples on Sin Cos Tan

Example 1: Find value of cos θ with respect to the triangle, such that the sides opposite and adjacent to θ measure 6 units and 8 units respectively.
Solution:
To find cos θ, we need the adjacent side and the hypotenuse.
Here, the adjacent side = 8.
But we are not given the hypotenuse.
To find this, we use Pythagoras theorem:
hypotenuse^{2} = opposite^{2} + adjacent^{2}
= 6^{2} + 8^{2}
= 100
hypotenuse = √100 = 10
Therefore, cos θ = Adjacent/Hypotenuse = 8/10 = 4/5
cos θ = 4/5

Example 2: Find the exact length of the shadow cast by a 15 ft lamp post when the angle of elevation of the sun is 60º.
Solution:
Let us assume that the length of the shadow of the lamp post is x ft.
Using the given information:
Applying tan to the given triangle
tan 60^{o} = 15/x
x = 15/tan 60^{o}
x = 15/√3 (Using trigonometry chart)
x = 15√3/3
∴ The length of the shadow of the lamp post is 15√3/3 ft.

Example 3: Solve the given expression using sin cos tan values: tan 60^{o}(sec 60^{o}/cosec 60^{o})
Solution:
We know, sec 60^{o}/cosec 60^{o} = sin 60^{o}/cos 60^{o}
⇒ tan 60^{o}(sec 60^{o}/cosec 60^{o}) = tan 60^{o}(sin 60^{o}/cos 60^{o}) = tan 60^{o} × tan 60^{o}
= (√3)^{2} = 3

Example 4: If sin θ = 2/3 and tan θ < 0, what is the value of cos θ?
It is given that sin θ is positive and tan θ is negative. So θ must be in Quadrant II, where cos θ is negative. Now, sin θ = 2/3 = Opposite/Hypotenuse.
So we can assume that Opposite = 2k, Hypotenuse = 3k.
By Pythagoras theorem,
Adjacent^{2} = Hypotenuse^{2}  Opposite^{2}
= (3k)^{2}  (2k)^{2} = 5k^{2}
Adjacent = √5k
Therefore, cos θ =  Adjacent/Hypotenuse = √5k/3k = √5/3
FAQs on Sin Cos Tan
What is Meant By Sin Cos Tan in Trigonometry?
Sin, cos, and tan are the basic trigonometric ratios in trigonometry, used to study the relationship between the angles and sides of a triangle (especially of a rightangled triangle).
How to Use Sin Cos Tan?
We can use sin cos and tan to solve realworld problems. To solve any problem, we first draw the figure that describes the problem and we use the respective trigonometric ratio to solve the problem.
How to Find Sin Cos Tan Values?
To find sin, cos, and tan we use the following formulas:
 sin θ = Opposite/Hypotenuse
 cos θ = Adjacent/Hypotenuse
 tan θ = Opposite/Adjacent
For finding sin, cos, and tan of standard angles, you can use the trigonometry table.
What is the Table for Sine, Cosine, and Tangent in Trigonometry?
The trigonometry table or chart for sin, cos, and tan are used to find these trigonometric values for standard angles 0^{o}, 30^{o}, 45^{o}, 60^{o}, and 90^{o}. Using the sin cos tan table, we can directly find the sin cos tan values for these angles and use in problems.
How to Find Value of Tan Using Sin and Cos?
The value of the tan function for any angle θ in terms of sin and cos can be given using the formula, tan θ = sin θ/cos θ.
What is the Trick to Remember the Formula to Find Sin Cos Tan?
We can remember the sin cos tan formulas using the word "SOHCAHTOA". This word can be used to remember the ratios of the respective sides involved in the calculation of sin, cos, and tan values in trigonometry as given below,
 Sin θ = Opposite/Hypotenuse
 Cos θ = Adjacent/Hypotenuse
 Tan θ = Opposite/Adjacent
Where is Sin Cos Tan Used?
Sin, cos, and tan find application in trigonometry to calculate the value of these functions while establishing a relationship between the angles and sides of a triangle (especially of a rightangled triangle).
What is Formula for Sin, Cos, and Tan?
The formulas to find the sin, cos, and tan for any angle θ in any rightangled triangle are given below,
 sin θ = Opposite/Hypotenuse
 cos θ = Adjacent/Hypotenuse
 tan θ = Opposite/Adjacent
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