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Midpoint Theorem
In geometry, the midpoint theorem helps us to find the missing values of the sides of the triangles. It establishes a relation between the sides of a triangle and the line segment drawn from the midpoints of any two sides of the triangle. The midpoint theorem states that the line segment drawn from the midpoint of any side to the midpoint of any other side of a triangle is parallel to the third side and is half of the length of the third side of the triangle.
In this article, we will explore the concept of the midpoint theorem and its converse. We will learn the application of the theorem with the help of a few solved examples for a better understanding of the concept.
1.  What is Midpoint Theorem? 
2.  State and Prove Mid Point Theorem 
3.  Converse of MidPoint Theorem 
4.  Application of Midpoint Theorem 
5.  FAQs on Midpoint Theorem 
What is Midpoint Theorem?
The midpoint theorem states that "the line segment joining the midpoints of any two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and equal to half of the length of the third side". It is often used in the proofs of congruence of triangles.
Consider an arbitrary triangle, ΔABC. Let D and E be the midpoints of AB and AC respectively. Suppose that you join D to E. The midpoint theorem says that DE will be parallel to BC and equal to exactly half of BC. Look at the image given below to understand the triangle midpoint theorem.
State and Prove Mid Point Theorem
Statement: The midpoint theorem states that the line segment joining the midpoints of any two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and equal to half of the third side.
i.e., in a ΔABC, if D and E are the midpoints of AB and AC respectively, then DE  BC and DE = ½ BC.
Proof of Midpoint Theorem
Now, let us prove the midpoint theorem. Consider the triangle ABC, as shown in the figure below. Let E and D be the midpoints of the sides AC and AB respectively.
Given: D and E are the midpoints of sides AB and AC of ΔABC respectively.
To Prove: DE  BC and DE = 1/2 × BC
Construction: In ΔABC, through C, draw a line parallel to BA, and extend DE such that it meets this parallel line at F, as shown below:
Mid Point Theorem Proof  

Statement  Reason 
Compare ΔAED with ΔCEF:  
1. AE = EC  E is the midpoint of AC (Given) 
2. ∠DAE = ∠FCE  alternate interior angles 
3. ∠DEA = ∠FEC  vertically opposite angles 
4. ΔAED ≅ ΔCEF  By the ASA criterion 
5. DE = EF and AD = CF  By CPCTC 
6. AD = BD  D is the mid point of AB (Given) 
7. BD = CF  From 5 and 6 
8. BCFD is a parallelogram.  BD  CF (by construction) and BD = CF (from 7) 
9. DF  BC and DF = BC  BCFD is a parallelogram 
10. DE  BC  DE is part of DF and from 9 
11. DE + EF = BC  E is a point on the line segment DF 
12. 2DE = BC  DE = EF from 5 
13. DE = 1/2 × BC  Dividing both sides by 2 
Midpoint theorem is proved by 10 and 13 
Will the converse of the midpoint theorem hold? Yes, it will, and the proof of the converse is presented next.
Converse of Midpoint Theorem
Statement: The converse of midpoint theorem states that "the line drawn through the midpoint of one side of a triangle that is parallel to another side will bisect the third side". We prove the converse of mid point theorem by contradiction.
Proof of Mid Point Theorem Converse
Consider a triangle ABC, and let D be the midpoint of AB. A line through D parallel to BC meets AC at E, as shown below.
Given: In ΔABC, D is the midpoint of AB and DE  BC.
To Prove: E is the midpoint of AC (i.e., AE = CE)
Construction: Through C, draw a line parallel to AB that meets the extended DE at F.
Proof of Converse of Midpoint Theorem  

1. BCFD is a parallelogram  DE  BC (given) and BD  CF (by construction) 
2. BD = CF  Opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal 
3. AD = BD  D is the midpoint of AB (given) 
4. AD = CF  from 2 and 3 
Compare ΔAED with ΔCEF:  
5. ∠DAE = ∠ECF  Alternative angles 
6. ∠DEA = ∠FEC  Vertically opposite angles 
7. ΔAED ≅ ΔCEF  By AAS criterion (using 4, 5, and 6) 
8. AE = CE  By CPCTC 
This completes our proof of the converse midpoint theorem.
Application of Midpoint Theorem
An interesting consequence of the midpoint theorem is that if we join the midpoints of the three sides of any triangle, we will get four (smaller) congruent triangles, as shown in the figure below:
We have: ΔADE ≅ ΔFED ≅ ΔBDF ≅ ΔEFC.
Proof: Consider the quadrilateral DEFB. By the midpoint theorem, we have:
 DE = 1/2 × BC = BF
 DE  BF
Thus, DEFB is a parallelogram, which means that ΔFED ≅ ΔBDF. Similarly, we can show that AEFD and DECF are parallelograms, and hence all four triangles so formed are congruent to each other (make sure that when you write the congruence relation between these triangles, you get the order of the vertices correctly).
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Important Notes on Midpoint Theorem:
 The midpoint theorem states that the line segment joining the midpoints of any two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and is equal to half of the length of the third side.
 The midpoint theorem converse states that the line drawn through the midpoint of one side of a triangle that is parallel to another side will bisect the third side.
Midpoint Theorem Examples

Example 1: Consider a triangle ABC, and let D be any point on BC. Let X and Y be the midpoints of AB and AC respectively.
Show that XY bisects AD.
Solution:
It is given that X and Y are the midpoints of AB and AC. By the midpoint theorem, XY  BC.
Now, consider ΔABD. The segment XE is parallel to the base BD, and X is the midpoint of AB.
By the converse of the midpoint theorem, E must be the midpoint of AD. Thus, XY bisects AD.
Answer: It is proved that XY bisects AD at E.

Example 2: Prove that if three parallel lines make equal intercepts on one transversal, then they will make equal intercepts on any other transversal as well.
Solution:
Let us first understand this problem in a better way. Consider three lines and two transversals, as shown below:
Suppose that the intercepts on the left transversal are equal, that is, AB = BC.
We then have to prove that the intercepts on the right transversal will also be equal, that is, DE = EF.
To prove this, join A to F:
Consider ΔACF. Since B is the midpoint of AC and BG  CF, the converse of the midpoint theorem tells us that G is the midpoint of AF.
Now, consider ΔAFD. We have shown that G is the midpoint of AF. Also, GE  AD.
Thus, the converse of the midpoint theorem tells us that E must be the midpoint of FD.
Therefore, DE = EF.
Answer: It is proved that DE = EF.

Example 3: Consider a parallelogram ABCD. E and F are the midpoints of AB and CD respectively. Show that the line segments AF and EC trisect the diagonal BD.
Solution:
Consider the following figure:
We have to show that BX = XY = YD = BD/3.
First of all, we note that AECF is a parallelogram as ABCD is a parallelogram which means AB = CD and so AE = CF (as E and F are the midpoints), and thus, EC  AF.
Now, consider ΔBAY. Since E is the midpoint of AB, and EX  AY, the converse of the midpoint theorem tells us that X is the midpoint of BY, which means that BX = XY.
Similarly, we can prove that XY = YD. Thus, BX = XY = YD = BD/3.
Answer: Hence proved.
FAQs on Midpoint Theorem
What is Mid Point Theorem Class 9?
The midpoint theorem states that in any triangle, the line segment joining the midpoints of any two sides of the triangle is parallel to and half of the length of the third side. It is introduced in class 9 and it has many applications in math while calculating the sides of the triangle, finding the coordinates of the midpoints, proving congruence in triangles, etc.
How do you Prove Mid Point Theorem?
To prove the midpoint theorem, we use the congruency rules. We construct a triangle outside the given triangle such that it touches the side of the triangle. And then we prove that it is congruent to any one part of the triangle. It helps us to prove the equality between sides by using CPCTC rules.
How to Prove Converse Mid Point Theorem Class 9?
To prove the converse of mid point theorem in class 9, we construct a triangle outside the given triangle. Then we prove that a part of the given triangle and the out side triangle are congruent by AAS criterion. Then by CPCTC, converse can be derived.
Is Midpoint Theorem Applicable for All Triangles?
The midpoint theorem can be applied to any triangle. When a line is drawn between the midpoints of any two sides of the triangle, it is always parallel to and half of the length of the third side. This theorem is applicable in all types of triangles.
What is the Statement of Midpoint Theorem?
The midpoint theorem statement is that "A line drawn between the midpoints of any two sides of a triangle is parallel to and half of the third side of the triangle". It can be mathematically represented as,
Suppose DE is the line segment joining the midpoints of sides of triangle AB and BC ⇒ DE  BC and DE = 1/2 × BC
Where is the Midpoint Theorem Used?
The midpoint theorem is used to define the relationships between the sides of the triangle. It is useful to find the missing side lengths, to prove the congruency of four triangles formed by joining the midpoints of the triangle, to find coordinates, etc. All these are the applications of the midpoint theorem in math.
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