# Class 8 Maths

Class 8 maths is the base for developing higher-level computational skills in students. Students in Class 8 learn to work basic algebraic equations, arithmetic of rational numbers, factorization and more. Learning class 8 maths requires students to have a clear understanding of previously studied concepts and skills. It focuses on working with advanced concepts related to geometry, arithmetic and numbers. In Class 8 maths the basic arithmetic operations shift to a bit complex algebraic word problems that students have to interpret and understand. Thus, having complete knowledge of the class 8 maths syllabus is a must for students.

## Class 8 Maths - Syllabus

CBSE Class 8 Maths syllabus is proficient in facilitating analytical growth and primary skillset in students. Class 8 Maths syllabus comprises topics related to shapes, numbers, addition, subtraction, and more. Some of the skills to develop in CBSE Class 8 maths are based on the following:

**Number System**

Rational Numbers:

Properties of rational numbers(including identities). Using the general form of expression to describe properties

Consolidation of operations on rational numbers.

Representation of rational numbers on the number line

Between any two rational numbers there lies another rational number (Making children see that if we take two rational numbers then unlike for whole numbers, in this case you can keep finding more and more numbers that lie between them.)

Word problem (higher logic, two operations, including ideas like area)

**Powers**

- Integers as exponents.
- Laws of exponents with integral powers

**Squares, Square roots, Cubes, Cube roots.**

- Square and Square roots
- Square roots using factor method and division method for numbers containing

(a) no more than total 4 digits and (b) no more than 2 decimal places

- Cubes and cubes roots (only factor method for numbers containing at most 3 digits)
- Estimating square roots and cube roots. Learning the process of moving nearer to the

required number.

**Playing with numbers**

- Writing and understanding a 2 and 3 digit number in generalized

form (100a + 10b + c, where a, b, c can be only digit 0-9) and engaging with various puzzles

concerning this. (Like finding the missing numerals represented by alphabets in sums involving any of the four operations.) Children to solve and create problems and puzzles.

- Number puzzles and games
- Deducing the divisibility test rules of 2, 3, 5, 9, 10 for a two or three-digit number expressed in the general form.

**Algebraic Expressions**

- Multiplication and division of algebraic expression. (Coefficient should be integers)Solving linear equations in one variable in contextual problems involving multiplication and division (word problems) (avoid The complex coefficient in the equations)

**Ratio and Proportion**

- Slightly advanced problem involving applications on percentages, profit & loss, overhead expenses, Discount, tax.
- Difference between simple and compound interest (compounded yearly up to 3

years or half-yearly up to 3 steps only), Arriving at the formula for compound interest through

patterns and using it for simple problems.

- Direct variation – Simple and direct word problems
- Inverse variation – Simple and direct word problems
- Time & work problems– Simple and direct word problems

**Geometry**

Understanding shapes:

- properties of quadrilaterals –Sum of angles of a quadrilateral is equal to 360° (By verification)
- Properties of a parallelogram (By verification)

Opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal (ii) Opposite angles of a

parallelogram are equal, Diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other.

Diagonals of a rectangle are equal and bisect each other.

Diagonals of a rhombus bisect each other at right angles.

Diagonals of a square are equal and bisect each other at right angles

**Representing 3-D in 2-D**

- Identify and Match pictures with objects [more complicated e.g. nested, joint 2-D and 3-D

shapes (not more than 2)].

- Drawing 2-D representation of 3-D objects (Continued and extended)
- Counting vertices, edges & faces & verifying Euler’s relation for 3-D figures with flat faces

(cubes, cuboids, tetrahedrons, prisms and pyramids)

**Construction:**

Construction of Quadrilaterals:

- Given four sides and one diagonal
- Three sides and two diagonals
- Three sides and two included angles
- Two adjacent sides and three angles

**Mensuration**

(i) Area of a trapezium and a polygon.

(ii) Concept of volume, measurement of volume using a basic unit, volume of a cube, cuboid and cylinder

(iii) Volume and capacity (measurement of capacity)

(iv) Surface area of a cube, cuboid, cylinder.

**Data handling**

(i) Reading bar-graphs, ungrouped data, arranging it into groups, representation of grouped data through bar-graphs, constructing and interpreting bar-graphs.

(ii) Simple Pie charts with reasonable data numbers

(iii) Consolidating and generalizing the notion of chance in events like tossing coins, dice, etc.

Relating it to chance in life events. Visual representation of frequency outcomes of repeated throws of the same kind of coins or dice. Throwing a large number of identical dice/coins together and aggregating the result of the throws to get a large number of individual events.

Observing the aggregating numbers over a large number of repeated events.

Comparing with the data for a coin. Observing strings of throws, notion of randomness.

Introduction to graphs

PRELIMINARIES:

(i) Axes (Same units), Cartesian Plane

(ii) Plotting points for different kinds of situations (perimeter vs length for squares, area as a function of side of a square, plotting of multiples of different numbers, simple interest vs number of years etc.)

(iii) Reading off from the graphs

- Reading of linear graphs
- Reading of distance vs time graph

## Developing Class 8 Maths Skills

Class 8 maths focuses on developing various real life skills in students. At this upper primary stage, students attain basic computational skills such as finding cube roots, square roots, plotting graphs, determining area and volume, etc. The best way to develop class 8 maths skills is through practical application and visualization.

**Geometry**

In class 8 maths students learn the application of Pythagorean Theorem in mathematics and in solving real-world problems. Students in class 8 must also know the use of various formulas for finding the volume of cones, spheres, and cylinders. They should also learn the formulas for the area and circumference of a circle.

**Number System**

In class 8 maths, students study numbers beyond the rational numbers and irrational numbers. They understand the concept of decimal expansion and can interpret and find both rational and irrational numbers on a number line. It is important to build this knowledge in students for performing various mathematical calculations in higher grades.

## Class 8 Maths Tips and Tricks

**Solve Interactive Worksheets**

Strengthening basic Class 8 maths skills requires reinforcement of concepts. Parents can promote hands-on practice of these skills through interactive worksheets. Interactive worksheets offer visualization of concepts which is highly useful in comprehensive learning. The engaging format of interactive worksheets is also appropriate for improving math interest in children.

**Refer Reliable Study material**

Refer reliable study material like NCERT Solutions and NCERT textbooks for the preparation of class 10 maths. These are the best preparation resources as the class 10 maths exam is set according to them.

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